Moskiewskie metro

Stacje moskiewskiego metra czyli tzw. podziemne pałace Moskwy to jedne z głównych zabytków miasta. Wyróżniają się prawdziwie pałacowymi holami i podziemnymi salami. Każda stacja metra jest inna i jednocześnie niesamowita. Na polecenie Towarzysza Stalina artyści mieli zademonstrować osiągnięcia władzy sowieckiej. Przy tworzeniu tego arcydzieła używano około 20 rodzajów marmuru, granitu, porfiru, rodonitu i innych skał z kamienia budowlanego. Podziemne pałace są przyozdobione w pomniki i bardzo bogate monumentalne, dekoracyjne kompozycje (m.in. mozaiki, witraże, rzeźby, płaskorzeźby) znanych artystów tego kraju. Artysta, który stworzył metro moskiewskie chciał nie tylko stworzyć komfortowe warunki dla pasażerów, ale też dać każdej stacji metra indywidualny wygląd. Dlatego moskiewskie metro uważane jest za jedno z najpiękniejszych na świecie. Nic więc dziwnego, że 44 stacje są miejscami dziedzictwa kulturowego.

Stacja Dostojewskiego jest moją ulubioną. Okraszona jest mozaikami z największymi dziełami Dostojewskiego: Zbrodnia i kara; Bracia Karamazow; Biesy; Idiota.

POCZĄTKI BUDOWY METRA

Idea zbudowania metra pojawiła się w 1901 roku, jednak pierwsze owoce tego pomysłu zaczęto zbierać w 1931 r. To wtedy, w grudniu, na ulicę wyszło kilku robotników z łopatami by zrobić pierwsze kroki w stronę zbudowania metra. Tak właśnie rozpoczęła się budowa pierwszej eksperymentalnej stacji metra. W późniejszych latach prace nabrały tempa. Po 3 latach było już ukończonych 90% wszystkich prac budowlanych w obszarze pierwszej linii metra, która miała długość 11 km i mieściła 13 stacji. Pierwsza linia metra została otwarta w 1935 roku.

Mayakovskaya. Pierwsza na świecie głęboko położona stacja kolumnowa powstała w 1938 r. W czasie Wielkiej Wojny Ojczyźnianej zaadaptowana na schronienie i miejsce uroczystych zgromadzeń

PLANY METRA NA 2022 ROK

Całkiem niedawno (a właściwie to 6 lat temu!) gdy mieszkałam w Moskwie to czytałam, że jest 12 linii metra, 293 km i 117 stancji. Od tej pory budowa metra rozkwitła do tego stopnia, że mamy już 14 linii metra. W 2018 roku zaczęto rozbudowywać nową linię metra – Bolszaja Kolcewaja Linia, która stanowi teraz duża konkurencję do pierwszej okrężnej linii metra. Tym samym Linia Kolcewaja straciła swoją wyłączność. Obecnie metro moskiewskie składa się z 223 stacji mieszczących się na 14 liniach o łącznej długości 381 km. Do 2022 roku są plany, by metro liczyło ponad 450 km i 252 stacje. Nowe stacje metra pojawią się w prawie wszystkich dzielnicach Moskwy. 

LINIA KOLCEWAJA

To okrężna linia metra, zbudowana w 1950 roku, która wynosi 19,4 km i liczy 12 stacji. Na mapach jest oznakowana kolorem brązowym. To sztandarowy punkt dla turystów, którego nie można ominąć, ponieważ wnętrza tych stacji są zrobione z dużą pompą 🙂 A właściwie z przepychem. Legenda głosi, że w trakcie jednego ze spotkań, dotyczącego kolejnego rozkwitu metra Stalin postawił filiżankę kawy na stole, która odbiła brązowy okrągły kształt. Architekt nie miał pewności czy tak miał wyglądać plan, więc postanowił nie sprzeciwiać się woli wodza i zbudować taki schemat metra. Niektóre źródła podają, że cyfra 12 nie jest przypadkowa i odpowiada dwunastu znakom zodiaku.

Schemat linii metra

Przy takim przepychu inne stacje mogą sprawiać wrażenie bardzo brzydkich, biednych i nudnych:

INTERAKTYWNA MAPA METRA

Do zobaczenia TUTAJ

Komsomolskaya. Metro im. Lenina. Początkowo do 1955 r. metro nosiło nazwę im. Ł. Kaganowicza

CZYNNE

Wszystkie stacje metra w Moskwie są czynne codziennie w godzinach od 5:30 do 1:00

Nie opierać się 🙂

Turyści, którzy nie umieją czytać cyrylicy mogą mieć nie lada problem w metrze, które niestety nie ma innych oznaczeń. Natomiast przy znajomości języka raczej nie powinniśmy się zgubić 🙂 Nooo chyba, że przechodzimy podziemiami z jednej stacji na drugą. Stacja Kitay – Gorod zawsze mi sprawiała kłopot 😀

CIEKAWOSTKI

  • Przez najbardziej obciążone stacje przewijają się codziennie od 85 do 150 tys. osób
  • Średnia prędkość pociągów metra wynosi ok 41,61 km / h
  • Minimalny odstęp między ruchem pociągów wynosi 90 sekund. Pamiętajcie jednak, że nocą są co ok 10 min.
  • Ruch pasażerski moskiewskiego metra jest jednym z najwyższych na świecie, zaraz po m.in. Pekinie, Tokio, Szanghaju, Seulu. Udział metra w przewozie pasażerów wśród przedsiębiorstw transportu pasażerskiego w Moskwie wynosi 48%
  • Prawdopodobnie oprócz znanego wszystkim schematu metra istnieje też niezależna podziemna linia metra określana kryptonimem D-6 wyłącznie do użytku władzy i wojska

    Partyzantskaya

BILETY

Są różne bilety, które można kupić m.in. w kasie lub automatach. Ja posługiwałam się biletami kartonowymi, które mieszczą np. 30 przejazdów. Za każdym razem należy je skasować przy wejściu w strefę biletu. W Moskwie przy bramkach znajdują się budki, w których ochrona pilnuje porządku. Mimo to, widziałam sytuacje, gdy niektórzy przeskakiwali przez bramki i nie zawsze ponosili tego konsekwencje. Po więcej informacji zapraszam TUTAJ.

LEGENDARNA FRAZA

Уважаемые пассажиры, будьте взаимно вежливы, уступайте места инвалидам, пожилым людям, пассажирам с детьми и беременным женщинам.

Szanowni pasażerowie, bądźcie dla siebie uprzejmi, ustępujcie miejsca osobom niepełnosprawnym, starszym ludziom, pasażerom z dziećmi i kobietom w ciąży.

Tę legendarną frazę codziennie słyszą miliony ludzi w moskiewskim metrze. To najbardziej popularne słowa, które zaczynają specjalne ogłoszenie nadawane podczas zatrzymania moskiewskich pociągów metra. Tylko czy nie jest tak, że jeśli daną frazę słyszysz kilka razy dziennie to przyzwyczajasz ucho do tych słów i automatycznie przestajesz zwracać na nie swoją uwagę? Początkowo byłam zafascynowana tym komunikatem, długo nie mogłam wsłuchać się w słowo „beremennym’’ (w ciąży), żeby usłyszeć gdzie dokładnie zlokalizowany jest tam akcent. Jednak po kilku miesiącach wysłuchiwania tej frazy przyznaję, że traci ona swoją wartość, a stanowi jedynie swego rodzaju odciągnięcie od czytania tabletów, gazet czy książek. W moim odczuciu, większość osób zna już zasady uprzejmości i etykiety obowiązującej w metrze.

Stacje, które prowadzą do centrum są zapowiadane męskim głosem, a odwrotny kierunek – damskim. Niektórzy twierdzą, że mężczyzna swoim głosem zagrzewa do pracy, natomiast subtelny głos kobiety woła po pracy do domu.

Trubnaya

MOSKWIANIE W METRZE

Po czym poznać turystę w metrze? Turysta się rozbiera, zdejmuje kurtkę, a Rosjanie tego nie robią. Obraz ludzi jaki zapamiętałam w moskiewskim metrze nie jest raczej wybitnie uśmiechający się, ale na pewni kolorowy, pełny czerwonych ust, mnóstwa kolczyków, broszek i innych dewocjonaliów, w rękach dzierżących tablety do czytania e-booków. Przez cały okres mieszkania w Moskwie nigdy nie zdarzyła mi się niemiła sytuacja, by ktoś zwrócił uwagę gdy np. rozmawiałam w języku polskim.

ZAMACH TERRORYSTYCZNY

Zapewne wiele osób pamięta rok 2010, w którym doszło do zamachu terrorystycznego na stacji metra Łubianka. 29 marca zamachowcy zdetonowali ładunek w pociągu o godzinie 7.56 czasu lokalnego (5.56 czasu polskiego). W wyniku tego wydarzenia zginęło co najmniej 25 osób. Następnie po godzinie ósmej (czasu moskiewskiego) na stacji Park Kultury wybuchła druga bomba przez którą zginęło 12-15 osób. Bomby zdetonowały dwie kobiety pochodzenia kaukaskiego.

METRO W KULTURZE

Istnieje kilka dzieł sztuki poświęconych moskiewskiemu metru. Np. w powieściach Dmitrija Głukhovsky’ego pt. Metro 2033 i Metro 2034 opisano życie ludzi w moskiewskim metrze po wojnie nuklearnej. Powstało wiele filmów, których tłem było metro. M.in. katastroficzny film Metro mający swoją premierę w 2013 roku. Rosyjska produkcja opowiada o zalanych przez rzekę tunelach metra, a uwięzieni ludzie próbują się ze wszystkich sił wydostać z tej pułapki. Ponadto film Chodząc po Moskwie (Я шагаю по Москве) z 1963 r. ukazuje uroki Moskwy i metra. Znajdziemy również kadr z filmu Moskwa nie wierzy łzom (Москва слезам не верит) na tle metra. Warto wspomnieć, że w rosyjskim metrze odbywa się wiele projektów kulturalnych i edukacyjnych np. Noc w metrze podczas której stacje metra stanowią platformę dla najciekawszych wydarzeń edukacyjnych. Inny ciekawy projekt to Muzyka w metrze, który pozwala na występy miejskich muzyków poprzez udostępnienie swej przestrzeni. Artyści grają muzykę na żywo dla pasażerów.

Sretensky Bulvar
Popiersie Lenina w metrze

FANPAGE METRA

Jesteście ciekawi jak wyglądają nowopowstałe stacje? Zerknijcie w galerię moskiewskiego metra na fanpage ’u 🙂

 

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    #lazerbeyazlatma #dentist #dentistry #gülüştasar çizimı #diştaşı #pursaklar #etlik #dişeti #dişkliniği #bleaching #kanaltedavisi #dişdolgusu #dental #dentalassistant #ağızsağlığı #dişhekimi
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    #gülüştasavvurı #diştaşı #pursaklar
    #etlik #dişeti #dişkliniği #bleaching #kanaltedavisi #dişdolgusu #dental #dentalassistant #ağızsağlığı
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    #pursaklar #etlik #dişhitit #dişkliniği #bleaching #kanaltedavisi #dişdolgusu #dental
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  45. İlgili tarihte fonksiyon testi kucakin lüzumlu hidrostatik
    test sinein albeni tankı veya kulaklıın körleme davranışlemlerinin tam olarak alegori getirilmiş olması kez doldurulacak ağzın bulunmuş
    olduğu manometre veya emniyet ventilinin sökülerek çıyaşlılmış olması gerekir.

    İş ekipmanının eminğinin kurulma ve montaj şartlarına
    destelı başüstüneğu durumlarda, ekipmanın kurulmasından sonrasında
    ve ilk el kullanılmadan önce ve her önem bileğhizmetikliğinde ekipmanın

    •Buhar kulaklıında iki pare emniyet ventilinin (1 tane yaylı + bir sayı
    ağırlıklı) bulunduğunu kontrol ten.

    Yönetmeliğe müsait belli aralıklarla, iş ekipmanına test,
    kontrol ve analiz bünyelması mesleklemidir. ‘İş Ekipmanlarının Yararlanmaında Dirlik
    Ve Emniyet Şartları Yönetmeliği’ uyarınca emekletmelerde çtuzakışır vaziyette mevcut ‘Basınçlı Kaplar ve Kaldırma İletme
    Makineleri’nin tasarrufı esnasında işçi sağlığı ve iş
    emniyetliği mevzularında güvenli bir şekilde  çhileışmasını peylemek namına örgülması zaruri kontrolleridir.

    Genleşme tankları sistemdeki edisyonncın kontrol şeşnda
    tutulması ve sisteme mukteza oranda suyun katkısızlanması itibarıyla çok …

    Kalorifer kazanı merkezi sistemlerde özellikle kullanılan binadaki
    tüm kaloriferleri ısıtmaya yarayan kazanmıştırr.

    Kömür v.b gibi yakıtlar ile yakılan kalorifer kazanı ısınarak
    sıcak suyu ısıtır.

    Firmamız, basınçlı kapların periyodik kontrolleri kapsamında boru hatlarının metodik kontrol ve muayenelerini, ilgili meşru düzenlemelere ve durağan ve yabancı yapılışlar tarafından gösterilen standartlara ve test yöntemlerine normal şekilde yapmaktadır.

    Ambiyans tankları, sıkıştırılmış havanın saklandığı ve hava sisteminin verimli ve çakılı çkızılışmasına yardımcı
    olan vasıtalardır.

    Bu da çoğunlukla herhangi bir projeye ve standarda
    uyulmadan meydana getirilen hatalı konulemlerdir. Bakımlar, periyodik olarak yapılmalıdır.
    Kifayetli ve dinamik bakım kuruluşlmalıdır. Bakım mensubu eğitimli ve sertifikalı olmalıdır.
    2.2.6. Test ve Kontrollerin Konstrüksiyonlmaması Test ve kontroller; İlgili yönetmelik ve standartlara birebir olarak
    strüktürlmalıdır. Belirtilen sürelerde ve eskiden mezun personel aracılığıyla dokumalmalıdır.

    Randevu vira etmek, henüz detaylı bilim yapmak yada değerlendirme istem kılmak sinein formumuzu doldurarak size ulaşmamızı isteyebilirsiniz.

    •Kazan dairesinin patlamaya ve yangına karşı dayanıklı ayrı bir bölmede veya yalnızca katlı binada olduğunu
    kontrol et.

    Buhar kazanları buhar elde etmek sinein kullanılan kazanlar dır.
    Kömür, saf kavara ve mazot kabilinden yakıtlar yakılarak kulaklı içinde ab ısıtılır ve buhar elde edilir.

    Parlayıcı, patlayıcı, cafcaflı ve zararlı maddeler
    depolama tankı periyodik kontrol ve muayenesi

    •Kulaklı dairesinde patlayıcı, parlayıcı ve zorlamasız yüzıcı malzemelerin bulunmadığını
    kontrol ten.

  46. NTVsporbet
    NTVsporbet giriş adresi değişime uğramış ve artık
    güncel alan adı üzerinden hizmet vermektedir. Sitenin güncellenmemiş sistemi üzerinden erişim sağlamaya
    çalışırsanız bu adres BTK tarafından askıya alınmıştır
    ibaresi ile karşı karşıya kalırsınız. Süreç içerisinde acaba
    alan adı değişimi kullanıcıların istifade edecekleri olanakların güvenilirliği ile mi alakalı soruları da sıklıkla yöneltilmektedir.
    Bahis platformunda alan adı değişimi yaşanması sistemin güvenliği ile alakalı bir sorundan kaynaklanmaz.

  47. Gorabet giriş adresi değişime uğramış ve artık güncel
    alan adı üzerinden hizmet vermektedir. Sitenin güncellenmemiş
    sistemi üzerinden erişim sağlamaya çalışırsanız bu
    adres BTK tarafından askıya alınmıştır ibaresi ile karşı karşıya kalırsınız.
    Süreç içerisinde acaba alan adı değişimi kullanıcıların istifade
    edecekleri olanakların güvenilirliği ile mi alakalı soruları da sıklıkla yöneltilmektedir.
    Bahis platformunda alan adı değişimi yaşanması sistemin güvenliği
    ile alakalı bir sorundan kaynaklanmaz.

    Gorabet

  48. müzik dinle
    Her yıl çıkan Türkçe şarkılar, müzik severlerin ilgisini çekiyor ve enerjilerini yükseltme noktasında rol oynuyor.
    Bu anlamda güncel tüm şarkıları bulabileceğiniz adreslerden birisi Müzik Dinle Dur.
    Müzik Dinle Dur üzerinden Türkçe şarkılar listesi sayesinde en son çıkan, 2020’nin en sevilen şarkılarını istediğiniz her yerde dinleme şansına sahipsiniz.
    Bu listeyle en sevdiğiniz Türkçe pop şarkılar, gittiğiniz her yerde
    size eşlik edebilir.

  49. Bugünkü CEOstudent yazım taşınabilir sınırsız modem
    üzerine. Öncelikle taşınabilir modem sınırsız olarak yeni bir wifi internet çeşidi diyebilirim.
    Taşınabilir modem sınırsız olarak nasıl alınır bundan da bahsedeceğim.
    Fakat öncelikle kendi başımdan geçenleri anlatayım.

    taşınabilir modem,taşınabilir wifi,taşınabilir
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  58. Bardzo ciekawy artykuł! Muszę dodać, że w moskiewskie metro jest już bardziej przyjazne turystom nie władającym językiem rosyjskim- nazwy stacji są zapisane również w alfabecie łacińskim, a komunikaty dotyczące stacji podaje się też po angielsku (co budziło swego czasu wielkie niezadowolenie nacjonalistów rosyjskich).

    1. O, dzięki za aktualizację 🙂 Ja mieszkałam w Moskwie w 2013 r. więc trochę się jednak zmieniło… Spowodowałaś, że znów mam ochotę na podróż moskiewskimi podziemnymi pociągami 🙂

    1. Rzeczywiście nawet wskazane jest poświęcić cały jeden dzień na zwiedzanie tych stacji, każda kolejna robi jeszcze większe wrażenie. Kilka lat temu na mnie wrażenie też wywarła naziemna stacja metro. Stacja miała miejsce na moście 🙂

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